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Foot Pain in Mississauga, ON

Foot Pain in Mississauga, ON  Mississauga

Foot Pain Conditions

Align Custom Fit Footwear & Footcare is your trusted source for learning about and treating conditions of the foot pain in Mississauga, ON. Our experienced team is devoted to delivering personalized solutions to mitigate various foot-related issues such as plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, bunions, hammer toes, and ankle sprains. Specializing in custom-fit footwear and innovative therapeutic treatments, we aim to enhance your mobility, provide relief from discomfort, and elevate your overall quality of life.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Conditions

Treatable Conditions

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis is a condition that causes pain along the back of the leg near the heel. It's a common injury of the Achilles tendon, which is the largest tendon in the body. The Achilles tendon connects your calf muscles to your heel bone, and you use it when you walk, run, climb stairs, jump, and stand on your tiptoes. Initial treatment typically includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Over-the-counter pain relievers may also help with reducing pain and inflammation. Physical therapy exercises to strengthen the calf muscles and achilles tendon can also be beneficial. Often, proper footwear and custom Align Orthotics™ are highly effective in treating Achilles tendonitis.

In more severe cases, immobilization with a cast or walking boot may be necessary. Surgery may be considered in cases where conservative treatments have not been successful, and symptoms have lasted for several months.

Anhidrosis (Dry Skin)

Anhidrosis refers to a reduced or complete absence of sweating. When anhidrosis affects the feet, it can lead to dry skin on the feet, which may cause discomfort and other symptoms. Dry skin on the feet can be caused by various factors, including:

Environmental conditions: Dry air, low humidity, or exposure to hot temperatures can contribute to dry skin.

Lack of moisture: Inadequate hydration or not moisturizing the feet regularly can result in dry skin.

Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, or peripheral neuropathy, can cause dry skin and affect sweat production.

Footwear and hygiene: Wearing socks and shoes that do not allow proper ventilation or not practicing good foot hygiene can contribute to dry skin.

Treatment for dry skin on the feet involves keeping the feet clean and moisturized. Regularly washing the feet with mild soap, drying them thoroughly, and applying a moisturizer can help alleviate dryness. It's also important to wear breathable footwear and socks, avoid excessive exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and drink an adequate amount of water to stay hydrated.

Ankle Sprains (Inversion/Eversion Sprains)

Inversion and eversion sprains, commonly referred to as ankle sprains, are injuries to the ligaments that connect the bones of the ankle.

An inversion sprain, the most common type of ankle sprain, occurs when the foot rolls inward, and the outer ligaments are stretched too far. This can happen during everyday activities such as stepping on an uneven surface, or during athletic activities when one might land awkwardly from a jump or change direction abruptly.

An eversion sprain, less common than an inversion sprain, happens when the foot is twisted outwards, and the inner ligament of the ankle is stretched too far. This can occur when the foot hits the ground unevenly, such as stepping into a hole.

Treatment usually involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (the RICE method). In some cases, physical therapy, and bracing are key to proper recovery. In rare cases, surgery may be required, depending on the severity of the sprain. Recovery times can vary greatly, from a few weeks to several months, depending on the extent of the injury and individual healing factors.

Balance Concerns

​​Balance concerns refer to difficulties or issues with maintaining stability and equilibrium while standing, walking, or performing daily activities. Balance is a complex process that involves the integration of sensory information from the inner ear (vestibular system), vision, and proprioception (sense of body position) to maintain an upright and steady posture. Addressing balance concerns is essential to prevent falls and maintain overall mobility and independence. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or a specialist in balance disorders, to assess the underlying cause of balance concerns and develop an appropriate treatment plan. They can provide tailored strategies and exercises to improve balance and reduce the risk of falls Custom Align Orthotics™, specifically designed to improve proprioceptive feedback and therefore balance can sometimes be beneficial, as well as understanding what type of footwear is best.

Bunions (Hallux Abducto Valgus)

A bunion is a bony bump at the base of the big toe that often develops in response to ill-fitting or non-supportive footwear. It can cause considerable discomfort and pain, leading to pressure and inflammation in the joint. The skin over the bunion might become red and sore, causing further discomfort when walking or wearing shoes.

Bunion treatments can range from conservative approaches, like wearing wider shoes, using bunion pads, custom orthotics, physical therapy, and using bunion braces, to more severe cases where surgery may be required to realign the joint. As with any medical condition, a healthcare provider (such as a pedorthist, chiropodist, or podiatrist) should be consulted for an appropriate diagnosis and treatment.


Bursitis refers to inflammation in the bursae, which are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion and reduce friction between bones, tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It commonly occurs in joints such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee. It may be a result of repetitive motion, excessive pressure, trauma, or infection. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. These can often be alleviated or eliminated by adjusting activities, wearing the right shoes, or medical treatments like corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, or antibiotics for infectious bursitis. Understanding the reason for the inflammation of the bursae is often helpful in treating the root cause of the problem. Our Body Align Assessment can assist.

Calcaneal Spur (Heel spur)

A calcaneal or heel spur is a bony outgrowth that forms on the bottom or back of the heel bone (calcaneus). This condition often occurs over time, as a response to chronic strain or pressure that leads to the deposit of calcium on the bone's surface. Treatment for heel spurs often involves conservative methods, including rest, ice, over-the-counter pain medications, physical therapy, custom Align Orthotics™, or shoe modifications. In more advanced cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be considered.


Capsulitis is the inflammation of the ligaments surrounding the joints in the foot. It most commonly affects the second toe joint (metatarsophalangeal joint) and may result from stress or trauma to the foot, such as repetitive impact, improper footwear, or unbalanced foot mechanics. The primary symptoms of capsulitis are pain, tenderness, and swelling in the affected joint. The pain may worsen with walking or wearing tight shoes. If left untreated, capsulitis can lead to instability and misalignment of the affected joint. Treatment usually involves conservative measures, including rest, ice, anti-inflammatory medications, and wearing supportive footwear with arch support and a wide toe box. Orthotic insoles may be recommended to provide additional support and correct any underlying biomechanical issues. Physical therapy exercises can help strengthen the foot muscles and improve joint stability.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a group of inherited disorders that cause damage to the peripheral nerves. These nerves carry signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles for movement, and they transmit sensations, such as touch, pain, and heat, from the body back to the brain. CMT affects both motor and sensory nerves and can cause muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as reduced sensation in the feet, ankles, legs, and hands. This can lead to difficulties with balance, frequent tripping or falls, foot deformities such as high arches or flat feet, and a loss of muscle tissue in the lower legs, leading to an inverted champagne bottle appearance. There is currently no cure for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, but physical therapy, occupational therapy, braces and other orthopedic devices, and sometimes surgery can help manage symptoms and improve mobility and function. Genetic counseling may be of benefit to affected individuals and their families.

Corns & Callus

Corns & Calluses: These are thick, hardened layers of skin that develop when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure. They most often develop on the feet and toes or hands and fingers. Corns and calluses can be unsightly and might cause discomfort if left untreated. Corns usually develop on non-weight-bearing parts of the skin, like the tops and sides of your toes, and can be painful when pressed. They are typically small, circular, and have a clearly defined center that can be hard or soft. Calluses, on the other hand, can develop on any part of the body that experiences friction, but they're most common on the soles of the feet, especially under the heels or balls. Calluses are rarely painful and tend to be larger than corns. Corns and calluses can be safely exfoliated or trimmed away by a chiropodist in a clinical setting.

Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Wounds

Diabetic and non-diabetic wounds are two distinct types of wounds that can occur on the skin. 

Diabetic Wounds: Diabetic wounds, also known as diabetic ulcers, are a common complication of diabetes. They typically develop on the feet or lower legs of individuals with diabetes due to underlying factors such as poor circulation, nerve damage (neuropathy), and impaired wound healing. These wounds may result from minor injuries, pressure points, or even unnoticed cuts or blisters that fail to heal properly.

Treatment for diabetic wounds often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including proper wound cleaning and dressing, offloading pressure from the affected area, controlling blood sugar levels, addressing underlying circulation issues, and addressing any contributing factors such as infection or poor nutrition. Regular monitoring and follow-up with healthcare professionals, such as chiropodists or wound care specialists, are crucial for effective management.

Non-Diabetic Wounds: Non-diabetic wounds encompass a broad range of wounds that occur in individuals without diabetes. These wounds can result from various causes, such as trauma, surgical incisions, burns, pressure ulcers, venous insufficiency, arterial disease, or autoimmune conditions. Non-diabetic wounds generally follow the normal wound-healing process, which involves inflammation, tissue formation, and remodeling.

Treatment for non-diabetic wounds on the feet depends on the specific underlying cause and the characteristics of the wound. It may involve wound cleansing, appropriate dressing selection, infection management, pain control, and promoting a favorable wound-healing environment. In some cases, surgical intervention or specialized treatments, such as negative pressure wound therapy or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, may be necessary.

Diabetic Ulcers

Diabetic ulcers are open sores or wounds that occur in approximately 15 percent of patients with diabetes and are commonly located on the bottom of the foot. They're a significant health concern due to the complications they can lead to if not properly treated.

People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing foot ulcers due to several factors:

Neuropathy: Over time, diabetes can cause damage to the nerves, particularly those in the feet and legs, leading to a condition known as peripheral neuropathy. This can cause a loss of sensation in the feet, meaning that a person may not notice small injuries that can lead to ulcers.

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): Diabetes also affects blood circulation, and poor circulation in the feet (PAD) can make it harder for wounds to heal.

Immune System Dysfunction: Diabetes can impact the immune system, making it harder for the body to fight off infections. This means that a small wound or cut can quickly turn into a more serious issue like an ulcer.

Foot ulcers can be dangerous if not treated promptly, as they can become infected and lead to more serious complications, including the need for amputation. Therefore, regular foot care and check-ups are essential for people with diabetes to catch and treat any potential issues early. If a person with diabetes notices a foot wound that isn't healing, they should seek medical attention immediately.

Foot and Ankle Osteoarthritis (OA)

Foot and Ankle Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint condition that affects the foot and ankle. Osteoarthritis, often referred to as "wear-and-tear" arthritis, involves the gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones within the joints. Treatment for OA in the foot and ankle typically includes non-surgical options such as pain relief medication, anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, orthotic devices (like insoles or braces), and lifestyle modifications such as weight management and low-impact exercises. If these treatments do not provide sufficient relief, surgical options, including joint fusion or joint replacement, might be considered.

Foot Deformities (Clubfoot, Post-Polio)

Foot deformities can occur as a result of various conditions, including congenital conditions (present at birth) or as a result of certain diseases or injuries. Two such conditions are clubfoot and post-polio syndrome, both of which can result in significant foot deformities.

Clubfoot: Clubfoot is a congenital deformity that affects about one in every 1,000 live births. The affected foot appears to have been rotated internally at the ankle, causing the foot to point downward and inward. The exact cause of clubfoot is unknown, but it may involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment often begins shortly after birth and can involve gentle stretching and casting (known as the Ponseti method), braces, or in some cases, surgery.

Post-Polio Syndrome: Post-polio syndrome is a condition that can affect polio survivors years after recovery from the initial viral infection. Among its many potential symptoms, post-polio syndrome can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and joint deformities, including foot deformities. The type and extent of foot deformity in post-polio syndrome depend on the muscles affected. Common issues may include foot drop (inability to lift the front part of the foot), inward rotation of the foot, or development of a high-arched foot. Treatment may involve braces, orthotic devices, physical therapy, or surgery.

In both cases, the goal of treatment is to improve function, provide pain relief, and enhance the quality of life. Treatment plans are typically individualized, taking into account the patient's age, overall health, and personal goals.

Foot Pain

Foot pain refers to discomfort, soreness, or aching sensations that occur in the foot. It can affect any part of the foot, including the toes, arches, heels, or the sole. Foot pain can have various causes, including:

Injuries: Sprains, strains, fractures, or other traumatic injuries to the foot.

Overuse: Repeated stress or excessive use of the foot, such as in athletes or individuals who spend long hours on their feet.

Medical conditions: Foot pain can be a symptom of underlying medical conditions, such as plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, bunions, Morton's neuroma, arthritis, gout, or diabetic neuropathy.

Foot structure abnormalities: Flat feet, high arches, or other structural issues can contribute to foot pain.

Footwear: Ill-fitting shoes, improper footwear, or wearing high heels for extended periods can cause foot pain.

Treatment for foot pain depends on the underlying cause and may include rest, ice, elevation, over-the-counter pain relievers, physical therapy, orthotic devices, supportive footwear, stretching exercises, and in some cases, medical interventions such as injections or surgery. It's important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.


Fissures in the feet, also known as heel cracks or heel fissures, refer to the development of deep, painful cracks or splits in the skin of the heels. These cracks can extend into the deeper layers of the skin and can be a common foot problem, especially in dry climates or during the summer months. Fissures can occur on one or both heels and can range in severity from mild to severe. In severe cases or if fissures become infected, it is important to seek medical attention. Our specialists can provide appropriate treatment options, including topical creams, foot soaks, padding, or debridement of calloused skin. They can also address any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development of heel fissures.

Ganglion Cysts

A ganglion cyst is a noncancerous, fluid-filled lump that typically forms near joints or tendons, including those in the feet. The exact cause is unknown, but they may develop due to joint or tendon irritation. Ganglion cysts are usually harmless but can cause discomfort or limited movement. Treatment options for ganglion cysts include observation, as some cysts may resolve on their own without intervention. If the cyst is causing pain or interfering with daily activities, treatment may involve aspiration of the cyst with a needle or surgery. A chiropodist can evaluate the cyst and recommend the most suitable treatment option based on the individual's circumstances.

Hallux Rigidus/Limitus

Hallux rigidus and hallux limitus are conditions that affect the joint at the base of the big toe, known as the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. These conditions are characterized by stiffness and limited motion in the joint, leading to difficulty in bending the big toe upward during walking or running. ​​Treatment options for hallux rigidus and hallux limitus depend on the severity of the condition and its impact on daily activities. Non-surgical approaches may include wearing supportive shoes, using custom orthotic inserts, taking pain medications, undergoing physical therapy, and using assistive devices to aid in mobility. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove bone spurs, fuse the joint, or replace the joint with an artificial implant.

Hammer Toes & Claw Toes

Hammer toes and claw toes are common foot deformities that primarily affect the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes. Both conditions involve abnormal bending or curling of the toes, which can cause significant discomfort, particularly when wearing shoes.

Hammer Toes: In this condition, the middle joint of the toe bends upward in a way that the toe resembles a hammer, hence the name. The toe's abnormal positioning can lead to the development of painful corns or calluses due to rubbing against the inside of the shoe. Hammer toes can be caused by wearing shoes that are too tight or high-heeled, which forces the toes into a bent position. Over time, the muscles controlling the toes can become unable to straighten the toe, even when there is no confining shoe.

Claw Toes: Claw toes are characterized by an upward bend at the first toe joint (closest to the foot) and a downward bend at the middle and end joints. This gives the toe a claw-like appearance. Similar to hammer toes, claw toes can also cause discomfort or pain due to the development of corns or calluses. Claw toes can be the result of nerve damage from diseases like diabetes or alcoholism, which can weaken the foot muscles.

Initial treatment for both conditions often includes changing footwear, padding or protecting the toe, and doing toe exercises to strengthen and stretch foot muscles. In severe cases or when the toe has become rigid, surgery might be needed. Always consult with a healthcare provider for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Heloma Durum (Corn)

Heloma Durum, commonly known as a corn, is a type of thickened and hardened skin that typically develops on the tops or sides of the toes or on the soles of the feet. It is a localized area of hyperkeratosis (thickened skin) caused by pressure or friction. Treatment for Heloma Durum aims to alleviate discomfort, reduce the thickness of the corn, and prevent further development or recurrence.

Hyperhidrosis (Sweaty Feet)

Hyperhidrosis of the feet is a condition where the feet sweat profusely, causing discomfort and potential hygiene issues. Treatment options aim to manage excessive sweating and improve the quality of life. Over-the-counter antiperspirants containing aluminum chloride can be applied to the feet to reduce sweating. Prescription-strength antiperspirants or topical treatments may be recommended for more severe cases. Iontophoresis is a procedure that can effectively treat the condition using a low electrical current to temporarily block the sweat glands. Botulinum toxin injections (Botox) may be used to reduce sweat production in the feet. In cases where other treatments fail, oral medications that can inhibit sweating may be prescribed.

Hyperkeratosis (Callus)

Hyperkeratosis, commonly referred to as a callus, is a condition characterized by the thickening and hardening of the skin in response to repeated friction, pressure, or irritation. It is a natural defense mechanism of the skin to protect itself from excessive rubbing or pressure. Treatment for hyperkeratosis aims to reduce the thickness of the callus, relieve any associated pain or discomfort, and prevent further development or recurrence.


Metatarsalgia is characterized by pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot, specifically in the area of the metatarsal bones, which are the long bones in the foot that connect to the toes. It's often described as a burning, aching, or sharp pain and can be exacerbated by standing, walking, or running. Treatment usually focuses on addressing the underlying cause and may include rest, ice, over-the-counter pain relievers, shoe modifications, weight loss, and physical therapy. In some cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be required. It's important to consult a healthcare provider if you're experiencing persistent pain in the ball of your foot.

Neuroma (Morton’s Neuroma)

A neuroma is a benign growth of nerve tissue that can occur in various parts of the body. When it comes to foot health, the term is often used to refer to Morton's neuroma, a painful condition that affects the ball of the foot, typically the area between the third and fourth toes. Treatment of Morton's neuroma usually involves conservative approaches at first, such as changes in footwear, orthotic devices, or corticosteroid injections. If these measures do not relieve the symptoms, surgical intervention might be necessary to remove the neuroma or relieve pressure on the nerve. As always, a healthcare provider should be consulted for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Onychocryptosis (Ingrown Toenails)

Onychocryptosis, commonly known as ingrown toenails, is a condition in which the edge or corner of a toenail grows into the surrounding skin, causing pain, inflammation, and potential infection. It most commonly affects the big toe but can occur in any of the toenails. ​​Treatment for ingrown toenails depends on the severity of the condition. Mild cases may be managed with conservative measures, such as soaking the affected foot in warm water, gently lifting the ingrown nail edge with a cotton swab, and placing a small piece of sterile cotton or dental floss under the nail to encourage proper growth.

In more severe or recurrent cases, medical intervention may be necessary. This can involve partial nail removal (partial avulsion), in which the ingrown portion of the nail is removed while leaving the rest intact. In some cases, complete nail removal (total avulsion) may be recommended, particularly if the ingrown toenail is persistent or causing chronic discomfort.

Onychodystrophic Toenail (Damaged Toenail)

An onychodystrophic toenail, also known as a damaged toenail, refers to a condition in which the structure and appearance of the toenail are abnormal or impaired. It can manifest in various ways, including changes in color, texture, thickness, shape, and overall integrity of the toenail. Treatment options for onychodystrophic toenails depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, addressing the underlying cause, such as treating a fungal or bacterial infection, may help improve the appearance and health of the toenail. Other treatment approaches may include trimming and shaping the nail to reduce discomfort, applying topical medications or nail lacquers, and in severe cases, partial or complete nail removal.

Onychomycosis (Fungal Nails)

Onychomycosis, commonly known as fungal nails, is a fungal infection that affects the nails, most commonly the toenails. It occurs when fungi, such as dermatophytes or yeast, invade and grow within the nail bed, leading to nail discoloration, thickening, brittleness, and sometimes a distorted or crumbly appearance. Treatment for onychomycosis may include topical antifungal medications, oral antifungal medications, or a combination of both. Topical treatments are typically applied directly to the affected nails, while oral medications are taken systemically to target the infection from within. In severe cases or when conservative treatments fail, surgical removal of the infected nail may be necessary.

Partial Paralysis

Partial paralysis is a condition where you lose the ability to move (or have limited mobility in) certain muscles in the body. Unlike total paralysis, where there's a complete loss of muscle function, partial paralysis will leave some degree of voluntary control over the affected muscles. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, assistive devices (such as braces or wheelchairs), and medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, partial paralysis can improve with time and treatment, while in others, it may be a permanent condition.

Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain, also known as runner's knee, is a common condition characterized by pain around or behind the kneecap (patella). It often occurs due to imbalances in the forces acting on the patella, causing irritation and inflammation. Treatment for patellofemoral pain typically involves a combination of strategies, including rest and activity modification, physical therapy to correct biomechanical issues and improve flexibility, and orthotic shoe inserts or knee braces to provide additional support. It's important to address contributing factors such as improper footwear or training techniques.

Pediatric In-Toeing

This is a condition commonly referred to as being "pigeon-toed." It is when a child's feet point inward instead of straight ahead when they walk or run. It's most noticeable in children beginning to walk, but children at various stages of growth can exhibit in-toeing. In many cases, in-toeing corrects itself as the bones of the legs and hips mature without the need for braces, casts, surgery, or even special exercises. In some cases, if the in-toeing is severe or isn't improving, a foot care specialist might recommend treatment.

Pes Cavus

Pes cavus, also known as a high arch, is a foot condition where the foot has a very high arch that doesn't flatten with weight bearing. This arch can cause a substantial amount of weight to be put on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing. Pes cavus can lead to a variety of signs and symptoms, such as pain and instability, making it difficult to perform daily tasks without discomfort or difficulty. Treatment for pes cavus depends on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. Non-surgical treatments can include the use of orthotic devices to help distribute weight evenly across the foot, physical therapy, and wearing shoes with increased support and cushioning. In severe cases, or when non-surgical treatments aren't effective, surgery may be considered to flatten the high arch, improve stability, or correct the underlying cause.

Pediatric Pes Planus

Pediatric pes planus refers to flat feet in children. It's a condition where the arches on the inside of your child's feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of the feet to touch the floor when standing up. It's a common and usually painless condition that can occur when the arches don't develop during childhood. In other cases, the condition may also be due to the weakening of the foot's arch with age, injury, or illness. Treatment can often be as simple as changing footwear, behaviorally changes, activity modifications, simple and fun exercises, and flexible custom orthotics.

Pes Planus

Pes Planus, more commonly referred to as flat feet, is a condition in which the arches on the inside of your feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of your feet to touch the floor when you stand up. While flat feet are not inherently a problem, it is important to have them evaluated by a healthcare provider who is a foot care specialist, such as a pedorthist, podiatrist or chiropodist to understand if it can be a contributing factor to other misalignments in the body. Pain should not be the only indicator to seek treatment. There are various different types of flat feet, including rigid pes planus and flexible pes planus, understanding the whole picture and how your overall body alignment is impacted is valuable. Depending on the underlying cause, treatments may include arch supports (orthotic devices), stretching exercises, supportive shoes, physical therapy, or exercise prescription.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis, characterized by inflammation of the thick tissue band running across the foot's bottom and linking the heel bone to the toes (plantar fascia), is a prevalent cause of heel discomfort. The primary symptom of plantar fasciitis is a sharp pain typically felt during the initial steps after waking up in the morning. As you start moving, the pain generally subsides, but it may recur after prolonged periods of standing or rising from a seated position. Watch video here.

Plantar Fibromatosis

In plantar fibromatosis, also known as Ledderhose disease, nodules or thickened bands of fibrous tissue develop on the plantar fascia, the tissue that spans the arch of the foot. These fibromas can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area. Treatments aim to manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition. Treatment for plantar fibromatosis may include orthotic insoles to provide support and relieve pressure, physical therapy to improve flexibility and reduce pain, and corticosteroid injections to reduce inflammation.

Plantar Warts

Plantar warts, also known as verrucas, are a type of skin infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). They commonly occur on the soles of the feet, particularly in areas of pressure and friction, such as the heels or balls of the feet. Treatment for plantar warts aims to eliminate the wart, alleviate pain, and prevent the spread of the virus.


This is a rare skin condition characterized by disorderly keratinization -- the process by which skin cells form keratin, a protein that provides strength to skin, hair, and nails. Porokeratosis appears as small, ring-like spots that slowly grow over time. They can develop anywhere on the body but are most commonly found on the feet and hands.

The spots have a distinctive raised border that looks like a moat around a castle. In the middle of each spot, the skin often looks normal or slightly lighter or darker than the surrounding skin. While they're usually painless, some types of porokeratosis can be associated with a higher risk of skin cancer.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD), also known as adult-acquired flatfoot, is a condition caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch. This results in flattening of the foot.

The posterior tibial tendon is a key structure in the foot, helping to maintain its arch and providing support when we step off and begin to lift the foot to take a step. If this tendon becomes inflamed or torn, it can cause PTTD.

Symptoms of PTTD include:

  • Pain or swelling in the inside of the foot and ankle.
  • Pain that gets worse with activity.
  • A feeling of instability or weakness in the foot and the inability to stand on the toes of the affected foot.
  • The inward rolling of the ankle.
  • Flatfoot deformity, in advanced cases.

The condition tends to occur more in women than in men and is often associated with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and can range from rest, immobilization, physical therapy, and orthotics to surgery in severe or unresponsive cases. It's essential to seek medical advice if you suspect you have PTTD, as early treatment can help prevent the condition from worsening.


Sesamoiditis is a type of inflammation that occurs in the sesamoid bones, which are two pea-shaped bones located in the ball of the foot, underneath the big toe joint. These bones are unique in that they are embedded within tendons, rather than connecting to other bones. Symptoms of sesamoiditis include pain under the big toe or the ball of the foot, swelling, bruising, and difficulty in moving or bending the big toe. Treatment for this condition often involves rest, ice, over-the-counter pain relievers, and in some cases, the use of a special pad in the shoe to cushion the sesamoid area. In more severe cases, immobilization of the foot or surgery may be required.

Sever’s Disease

Sever's Disease, also known as calcaneal apophysitis, is a common cause of heel pain in growing children, especially those who are physically active. It occurs when the growth plate (the area at the end of a developing bone where cartilage cells are changing into bone cells) in the heel, also known as the calcaneus, is inflamed. ​​This condition is most often seen in children between the ages of 8 and 14 years old. It's frequently associated with a growth spurt when the bones, muscles, and tendons change rapidly and unevenly. In Sever's Disease, the Achilles tendon, which attaches to the calcaneus, pulls on the growth plate, causing pain and inflammation. ​​

Surgical Nail Procedures

Surgical nail procedures encompass a range of treatments designed to address issues affecting the toenails. They are typically performed by chiropodists and can be used to correct problems such as ingrown toenails, fungal nail infections, deformed or thickened nails, and nails damaged due to trauma or disease. Here are a few examples:

Nail Avulsion: This procedure involves the removal of all or part of the toenail. It is usually performed under local anesthesia and can be done to treat severe ingrown toenails, fungal infections, or tumors under the nail.

Matrixectomy: This is a more permanent solution for recurring ingrown toenails. The procedure involves the removal of the portion of the nail bed (matrix) that produces the ingrown section of the nail. This can be done either chemically, using a substance like phenol to destroy the cells, or surgically.

Nail Biopsy: This procedure is typically done when there's a suspicion of malignant melanoma or other serious conditions. It involves the removal of a small piece of the nail or nail bed for examination under a microscope.

Nail Reconstruction: This is a cosmetic procedure that can be done following trauma or surgery that has left the nail disfigured. It involves the use of synthetic materials to create a new, aesthetically pleasing nail.

As with any surgical procedure, there can be risks and potential complications associated with nail surgeries, so it's important to discuss these with your healthcare provider before deciding on a course of treatment.

Tinea Pedis (Athlete’s Foot)

Tinea pedis, commonly known as athlete's foot, is a fungal infection that affects the skin of the feet. It is caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, which thrive in warm and moist environments, such as inside shoes and socks. Treatment for athlete's foot typically involves over-the-counter antifungal creams, powders, or sprays. These medications work to kill the fungi and relieve symptoms. Keeping the feet clean and dry, wearing breathable footwear, changing socks regularly, and avoiding walking barefoot in public areas can help prevent the recurrence of athlete's foot.

Toenail Avulsions & Infections

Toenail Avulsions: This term refers to a medical procedure where all or part of a toenail is removed. This procedure is often necessary to alleviate pain and discomfort associated with conditions such as an ingrown toenail, fungal toenail infection, or severe toenail injury. The procedure may also be performed as part of the treatment for more severe conditions like malignant melanoma. An avulsion is generally a simple procedure, often carried out under local anesthesia.

Toenail Infections: These are common and can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental conditions or trauma to the toe. Fungal infections (onychomycosis) are one of the most common types of toenail infections and can lead to discoloration, thickening, or crumbling of the nail. Bacterial infections can also occur, especially after an injury to the toe, and can cause pain, redness, swelling, and pus. Both types of infections require treatment, which may involve topical or oral medications. In advanced cases, a toenail avulsion may be necessary.

It's important to consult with a healthcare provider if you're experiencing persistent issues with your toenails. They can provide an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment options.

Toe Deformities (i.e., Hammer Toes, Hallux Abducto Valgus)

Toe deformities refer to structural abnormalities or malformations of the toes that can affect their appearance, function, and comfort. Two common types of toe deformities are hammer toes and hallux abducto valgus (commonly known as bunions):

Hammer Toes: Hammer toes occur when there is an imbalance in the muscles and ligaments that control the position of the toe joints. This imbalance causes the toe to bend or curl downward at the middle joint, resembling a hammer. Hammer toes are commonly seen in the second, third, and fourth toes. They can be flexible initially but may become rigid over time. Hammer toes can result from factors such as ill-fitting footwear, muscle imbalances, foot structure abnormalities, or certain medical conditions.

Hallux Abducto Valgus (Bunions): Hallux abducto valgus, commonly referred to as bunions, is a deformity of the big toe joint. It occurs when the big toe deviates inward, towards the other toes, causing a bony bump to form at the base of the big toe. Bunions can be painful, and they can also lead to joint stiffness, redness, and swelling. They often develop due to factors such as genetics, faulty foot mechanics, ill-fitting footwear, or arthritis. Bunions can also alter walking and movement biomechanics and have a long term effect on the ankle, knee, hip or even back. It is best to have these assessed by a healthcare professional specializing in biomechanics to understand how your body alignment may be impacted.

Turf Toe

Turf toe is a sprain or injury to the big toe joint caused by hyperextension or excessive bending, often seen in athletes on artificial turf. Symptoms include pain, swelling, limited movement, and instability of the joint. Initial at-home treatments with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) may be effective, along with supportive measures like taping and wearing supportive shoes that meet the criteria for healthy footwear. Treatments with a licensed chiropodist or kinesiologist, such as physical therapy exercises, can also be very effective at resolving symptoms.

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